Ronitt Rubinfeld, (MIT), Something for Almost Nothing: Advances in Sub-linear Time Algorithms.
Linear-time algorithms have long been considered the gold standard of computational endciency. Indeed, it is hard to imagine doing better than that, since for a nontrivial problem, any algorithm must consider all of the input in order to make a decision. However, as extremely large data sets are pervasive, it is natural to wonder what one can do in sub-linear time. Over the past two decades, several surprising advances have been made on designing such algorithms. We will give a non-exhaustive survey of this emerging area, highlighting recent progress and directions for further research.
Gilles Barthe, (IMDEA Software Institute), Computer-Aided Cryptographic Proofs.
EasyCrypt [6] is a computer-assisted framework for reasoning about the security of cryptographic constructions, using the methods and tools of provable security, and more specifically of the game-based techniques. The core of EasyCrypt is a relational program logic for a core probabilistic programming language with sequential composition, conditionals, loops, procedure calls, assignments and sampling from discrete distributions. The relational program logic is key to capture reductionist arguments that arise in cryptographic proofs. It is complemented by a (standard, non-relational) program logic that allows to reason about the probability of events in the execution of probabilistic programs; this program logic allows for instance to upper bound the probability of failure events, that are pervasive in game-based cryptographic proofs. In combination, these logics capture general reasoning principles in cryptography and have been used to verify the security of emblematic constructions, including the Full-Domain Hash signature [8], the Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) [7], hash function designs [3] and zero-knowledge protocols [5, 1]. Yet, these logics can only capture instances of general principles, and lack mechanisms for stating and proving these general principles once and for all, and then for instantiating them as needed. To overcome this limitation, we have recently extended EasyCrypt with programming language mechanisms such as modules and type classes. Modules provide support for composition of cryptographic proofs, and for formalizing hybrid arguments, whereas type classes are convenient to model and reason about algebraic structures. Together, these extensions significantly expand the class of examples that can be addressed with EasyCrypt. For instance, we have used the latest version of EasyCrypt to verify the security of a class of authenticated key exchange protocols, and of a secure function evaluation protocol based on garbled circuits and oblivious transfer.

Our current work explores two complementary directions. On the one hand, we are extending the EasyCrypt infrastructure in order to derive security guarantees about implementations of cryptographic constructions. Indeed, practical attacks often target specific implementations and exploit some characteristics that are not considered in typical provable security proofs; as a consequence, several widely used implementations of provably secure schemes are vulnerable to attacks. In order to narrow the gap between provable security and implementations, we are extending EasyCrypt with support to reason about C-like implementations, and use the CompCert verified C compiler (http://compcert.inria.fr) to carry the security guarantees down to executable implementations [2]. On the other hand, we are developing specialized formalisms to reason about the security of particular classes of constructions. For instance, we have recently developed the ZooCrypt framework [4], which supports automated analysis of chosen-plaintext and chosen ciphertext-security for public-key encryption schemes built from (partial-domain) one-way trapdoor permutations and random oracles. Using ZooCrypt, we have analyzed over a million (automatically generated) schemes, including many schemes from the literature. For chosen-plaintext security, ZooCrypt is able to report in nearly 99% of the cases a proof of security with a concrete security bound, or an attack. We are currently extending our approach to reason about encryption schemes based on Diffie-Hellmann groups and bilinear pairings, both in the random oracle and in the standard models. More information about the project is available from the project web page http://www.easycrypt.info.

References

1. Almeida, J.B., Barbosa, M., Bangerter, E., Barthe, G., Krenn, S., Zanella-Bé́guelin, S.: Full proof cryptography: verifiable compilation of efficient zero-knowledge protocols. In: 19th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. ACM (2012)

2. Almeida, J.B., Barbosa, M., Barthe, G., Dupressoir, F.: Certified computer-aided cryptography: efficient provably secure machine code from high-level implementations. In: ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. ACM (2013)

3. Backes, M., Barthe, G., Berg, M., Grégoire, B., Skoruppa, M., Zanella-Béguelin, S.: Verified security of Merkle-Damgård. In: IEEE Computer Security Foundations. ACM (2012)

4. Barthe, G., Crespo, J.M., Grégoire, B., Kunz, C., Lakhnech, Y., Schmidt, B., Zanella-Béguelin, S.: Automated analysis and synthesis of padding-based encryption schemes. In: ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security. ACM (2013)

5. Barthe, G., Grégoire, B., Hedin, D., Heraud, S., Zanella-Béguelin, S.: A MachineChecked Formalization of Sigma-Protocols. In: IEEE Computer Security Foundations. ACM (2010)

6. Barthe, G., Grégoire, B., Heraud, S., Zanella-Béguelin, S.: Computer-aided security proofs for the working cryptographer. In: Rogaway, P. (ed.) CRYPTO 2011. LNCS, vol. 6841, pp. 71–90. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)

7. Barthe, G., Grégoire, B., Lakhnech, Y., Zanella-Béguelin, S.: Beyond Provable Security Verifiable IND-CCA Security of OAEP. In: Kiayias, A. (ed.) CT-RSA 2011. LNCS, vol. 6558, pp. 180–196. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)

8. Zanella-Béguelin, S., Barthe, G., Grégoire, B., Olmedo, F.: Formally certifying the security of digital signature schemes. In: IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE Computer Society (2009)

Robert Sedgewick, (Princeton), "If You Can Specify It, You Can Analyze It" - The Lasting Legacy of Philippe Flajolet.
The "Flajolet School" of the analysis of algorithms and combinatorial structures is centered on an effective calculus, known as analytic combinatorics, for the development of mathematical models that are sufficiently accurate and precise that they can be validated through scientific experimentation. It is based on the generating function as the central object of study, first as a formal object that can translate a specification into mathematical equations, then as an analytic object whose properties as a function in the complex plane yield the desired quantitative results. Universal laws of sweeping generality can be proven within the framework, and easily applied. Standing on the shoulders of Cauchy, Polya, de Bruijn, Knuth, and many others, Philippe Flajolet and scores of collaborators developed this theory and demonstrated its effectiveness in a broad range of scientific applications. Flajolet's legacy is a vibrant field of research that holds the key not just to understanding the properties of algorithms and data structures, but also to understanding the properties of discrete structures that arise as models in all fields of science. This talk will survey Flajolet's story and its implications for future research.

"A man ... endowed with an an exuberance of imagination which puts it in his power to establish and populate a universe of his own creation".

Gonzalo Navarro, (University of Chile), Encoding Data Structures.
Classical data structures can be regarded as additional information that is stored on top of the raw data in order to speed up some kind of queries. Some examples are the suffix tree to support pattern matching in a text, the extra structures to support lowest common ancestor queries on a tree, or precomputed shortest path information on a graph.

Some data structures, however, can operate without accessing the raw data. These are called encodings. Encodings are relevant when they do not contain enough information to reproduce the raw data, but just what is necessary to answer the desired queries (otherwise, any data structure could be seen as an encoding, by storing a copy of the raw data inside the structure).

Encodings are interesting because they can occupy much less space than the raw data. In some cases the data itself is not interesting, only the answers to the queries on it, and thus we can simply discard the raw data and retain the encoding. In other cases, the data is used only sporadically and can be maintained in secondary storage, while the encoding is maintained in main memory, thus speeding up the most relevant queries.

When the raw data is available, any computable query on it can be answered with sufficient time. With encodings, instead, one faces a novel fundamental question: what is the effective entropy of the data with respect to a set of queries? That is, what is the minimum size of an encoding that can answer those queries without accessing the data? This question is related to Information Theory, but in a way inextricably associated to the data structure: the point is not how much information the data contains, but how much information is conveyed by the queries. In addition, as usual, there is the issue of how efficiently can be the queries answered depending on how much space is used.

In this talk I will survey some classical and new encodings, generally about preprocessing arrays A[1, n] so as to answer queries on array intervals [i, j] given at query time. I will start with the classical range minimum queries (which is the minimum value in A[i,j]?) which has a long history that culminated a few years ago in an asymptotically space-optimal encoding of 2n+o(n) bits answering queries in constant time. Then I will describe more recent (and partly open) problems such as finding the second minimum in A[i, j], the k smallest values in A[i, j], the kth smallest value in A[i, j], the elements that appear more than a fraction τ of the times in A[i, j], etc. All these queries appear recurrently within other algorithmic problems, and they have also direct application in data mining.

J. Ian Munro, (University of Waterloo), Succint Data Structures ... Not Just for Graphs.
Succinct data structures are data representations that use (nearly) the information theoretic minimum space, for the combinatorial object they represent, while performing the necessary query operations in constant (or nearly constant) time. So, for example, we can represent a binary tree on n nodes in 2n + o(n) bits, rather than the "obvious" 5n or so words, i.e. 5n lg(n) bits. Such a difference in memory requirements can easily translate to major differences in runtime as a consequence of the level of memory in which most of the data resides. The field developed to a large extent because of applications in text indexing, so there has been a major emphasis on trees and a secondary emphasis on graphs in general; but in this talk we will draw attention to a much broader collection of combinatorial structures for which succinct structures have been developed. These will include sets, permutations, functions, partial orders and groups, and yes, a bit on graphs.


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